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King Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz

The History of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia traces its roots back to the earliest civilizations of the Arabian Peninsula. Over the centuries, the peninsula has played an important role in history as an ancient trade center and as the birthplace of Islam, one of the world’s major monotheistic religions.
Since King Abdulaziz Al-Saud established the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, its transformation has been astonishing.
In a few short decades, the Kingdom has turned itself from a desert nation to a modern, sophisticated state and a major player on the international stage.
Early History                                                                                     
The first concrete evidence of human presence in the Arabian Peninsula dates back 15,000 to 20,000 years. Bands of hunter-gatherers roamed the land, living off wild animals and plants.
As the European ice cap melted during the last Ice Age, some 15,000 years ago, the climate in the peninsula became dry. Vast plains once covered with lush grasslands gave way to scrubland and deserts, and wild animals vanished. River systems also disappeared, leaving in their wake the dry river beds (wadis) that are found in the peninsula today.
This climate change forced humans to move into the lush mountain valleys and oases. No longer able to survive as hunter-gatherers, they had to develop another means of survival. As a result, agriculture developed – first in Mesopotamia, then the Nile River Valley, and eventually spreading across the Middle East.
The development of agriculture brought other advances. Pottery allowed farmers to store food. Animals, including goats, cattle, sheep, horses and camels, were domesticated, and people abandoned hunting altogether. These advances made intensive farming possible. In turn, settlements became more permanent, leading to the foundations of what we call civilization – language, writing, political systems, art and architecture.
An Ancient Trade Center                                                           
Located between the two great centers of civilization, the Nile River Valley and Mesopotamia, the Arabian Peninsula was the crossroads of the ancient world. Trade was crucial to the area’s development; caravan routes became trade arteries that made life possible in the sparsely populated peninsula.
The people of the peninsula developed a complex network of trade routes to transport agricultural goods highly sought after in Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley and the Mediterranean Basin. These items included almonds from Taif, dates from the many oases, and aromatics such as frankincense and myrrh from the Tihama plain.
Spices were also important trade items. They were shipped across the Arabian Sea from India and then transported by caravan.
The huge caravans traveled from what is now Oman and Yemen, along the great trade routes running through Saudi Arabia’s Asir Province and then through Makkah and Madinah, eventually arriving at the urban centers of the north and west.
The people of the Arabian Peninsula remained largely untouched by the political turmoil in Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley and the eastern Mediterranean. Their goods and services were in great demand regardless of which power was dominant at the moment – Babylon, Egypt, Persia, Greece or Rome. In addition, the peninsula’s great expanse of desert formed a natural barrier that protected it from invasion by powerful neighbors.
The Birth of Islam                                                                           
Around the year 610, Muhammad, a native of the thriving commercial center of Makkah, received a message from God (in Arabic, Allah) through the Angel Gabriel. As more revelations bid him to proclaim the oneness of God universally, the Prophet Muhammad’s following grew.
In 622, learning of an assassination plot against him, the Prophet led his followers to the town of Yathrib, which was later named Madinat Al-Nabi (City of the Prophet) and now known simply as Madinah. This was the Hijrah, or migration, which marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.
Within the next few years, several battles took place between the followers of the Prophet Muhammad and the pagans of Makkah. By 628, when Madinah was entirely in the hands of the Muslims, the Prophet had unified the tribes so successfully that he and his followers reentered Makkah without bloodshed.
The Islamic Empire                                                                        
Less than 100 years after the birth of Islam, the Islamic Empire extended from Spain to parts of India and China. Although the political centers of power had moved out of the Arabian Peninsula, trade flourished in the area.
Also, a large number of pilgrims began regularly visiting the peninsula, with some settling in the two holy cities of Makkah and Madinah. These pilgrims facilitated the exchange of ideas and cultures between the people of the peninsula and other civilizations of the Arab and Muslim worlds.
The emergence of Arabic as the language of international learning was another major factor in the cultural development of the Arabian Peninsula. The Muslim world became a center for learning and scientific advances during what is known as the “Golden Age.” Muslim scholars made major contributions in many fields, including medicine, biology, philosophy, astronomy, arts and literature. Many of the ideas and methods pioneered by Muslim scholars became the foundation of modern sciences.
The Islamic Empire thrived well into the 17th century, when it broke up into smaller Muslim kingdoms. The Arabian Peninsula gradually entered a period of relative isolation, although Makkah and Madinah remained the spiritual heart of the Islamic world and continued to attract pilgrims from many countries.
The First Saudi State                                                                     
In the early 18th century, a Muslim scholar and reformer named Shaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab began advocating a return to the original form of Islam. Abdul Wahhab was initially persecuted by local religious scholars and leaders who viewed his teachings as a threat to their power bases. He sought protection in the town of Diriyah, which was ruled by Muhammad bin Saud.
Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud formed an agreement to dedicate themselves to restoring the pure teachings of Islam to the Muslim community. In that spirit, bin Saud established the First Saudi State, which prospered under the spiritual guidance of bin Abdul Wahhab, known simply as the Shaikh.
By 1788, the Saudi State ruled over the entire central plateau known as the Najd. By the early 19th century, its rule extended to most of the Arabian Peninsula, including Makkah and Madinah.
The popularity and success of the Al-Saud rulers aroused the suspicion of the Ottoman Empire, the dominant power in the Middle East and North Africa at the time. In 1818, the Ottomans dispatched a large expeditionary force armed with modern artillery to the western region of Arabia. The Ottoman army besieged Diriyah, which by now had grown into one of the largest cities in the peninsula. Ottoman forces leveled the city with field guns and made it permanently uninhabitable by ruining the wells and uprooting date palms.
The Second Saudi State                                                              
By 1824, the Al-Saud family had regained political control of central Arabia. The Saudi ruler Turki bin Abdullah Al-Saud transferred his capital to Riyadh, some 20 miles south of Diriyah, and established the Second Saudi State. During his 11-year rule, Turki succeeded in retaking most of the lands lost to the Ottomans. As he expanded his rule, he took steps to ensure that his people enjoyed rights, and he saw to their well-being.
Under Turki and his son, Faisal, the Second Saudi State enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity, and trade and agriculture flourished. The calm was shattered in 1865 by a renewed Ottoman campaign to extend its Middle Eastern empire into the Arabian Peninsula. Ottoman armies captured parts of the Saudi State, which was ruled at the time by Faisal’s son, Abdulrahman. With the support of the Ottomans, the Al-Rashid family of Hail made a concerted effort to overthrow the Saudi State.
Faced with a much larger and better equipped army, Abdulrahman bin Faisal Al-Saud was forced to abandon his struggle in 1891. He sought refuge with the Bedouin tribes in the vast sand desert of eastern Arabia known as the Rub’ Al-Khali, or ‘Empty Quarter.’ From there, Abdulrahman and his family traveled to Kuwait, where they stayed until 1902. With him was his young son Abdulaziz, who was already making his mark as a natural leader and a fierce warrior for the cause of Islam.
The Modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia                                
The young Abdulaziz was determined to regain his patrimony from the Al-Rashid family, which had taken over Riyadh and established a governor and garrison there. In 1902, Abdulaziz, – accompanied by only 40 followers – staged a daring night march into Riyadh to retake the city garrison, known as the Masmak Fortress. This legendary event marks the beginning of the formation of the modern Saudi state.
After establishing Riyadh as his headquarters, Abdulaziz captured all of the Hijaz, including Makkah and Madinah, in 1924 to 1925. In the process, he united warring tribes into one nation.
On September 23, 1932, the country was named the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an Islamic state with Arabic as its national language and the Holy Qur’an as its constitution.
King Abdulaziz (1932-1953)                                                        
The legendary King Abdulaziz was a remarkable leader of imagination and vision who set Saudi Arabia on the road to modernization. During his rule, King Abdulaziz started building the country’s infrastructure. He established roads and basic communications systems, introduced modern technology, and improved education, health care and agriculture.
Although King Abdulaziz never traveled beyond the Arab world, he was a highly sophisticated statesman. Foreign leaders and diplomats who met with him came away impressed by his integrity and honesty. He was famous for dispensing with diplomatic niceties in favor of frank and candid discussion. He was just as well known for keeping his promises, whether given to a simple Bedouin or to a world leader. These qualities enhanced his stature as a reliable and responsible leader dedicated to peace and justice.
King Saud (1953-1964)                                                                 
Abdulaziz’ eldest son Saud acceded to the throne upon his father’s death in 1953. He continued King Abdulaziz’s legacy, creating the Council of Ministers and establishing the Ministries of Health, Education and Commerce. One of King Saud’s greatest successes was the development of education – under his rule many schools were established in the Kingdom, including its first institute of higher education, King Saud University, in 1957.
King Saud also made his mark globally. In 1957, he became the first Saudi monarch to visit the United States. In 1962 he sponsored an international Islamic conference that would become the Muslim World League, headquartered in Makkah.
King Faisal (1964-1975)                                                               
King Faisal bin Abdulaziz was a visionary innovator with a great respect for tradition. He initiated the first of a series of economic and social development plans that would transform Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure, especially industry, and set the Kingdom on a path of rapid growth. He also established the first public schools for girls.
In foreign policy, King Faisal showed a firm commitment to the Islamic world. He was a central force behind the establishment in Jeddah in 1971 of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), a group of 56 Islamic countries that promotes Islamic unity and cooperation.
Throughout the turbulent period of the 1960s and 1970s, which included two Arab-Israeli wars and the oil crisis of 1973, King Faisal was a voice for moderation, peace and stability.
King Khalid (1975-1982)                                                              
Khalid bin Abdulaziz succeeded King Faisal in 1975. King Khalid also emphasized development, and his reign was marked by an almost explosive growth in the country’s physical infrastructure. It was a period of enormous wealth and prosperity for Saudi Arabia.
On the international stage, King Khalid was a prime mover in forming the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 1981, an organization that promotes economic and security cooperation among its six member countries: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia.
King Fahd (1982-2005)                                                                 
Under King Fahd bin Abdulaziz, who adopted the title Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, Saudi Arabia continued its tremendous socioeconomic development and emerged as a leading political and economic force.
King Fahd was central to Saudi Arabia’s efforts to diversify its economy and promote private enterprise and investment. He restructured the Saudi government and approved the first nationwide municipal elections, which took place in 2005.
One of King Fahd’s greatest accomplishments in Saudi Arabia was a series of projects to expand the Kingdom’s facilities to accommodate the millions of pilgrims who come to the country each year. These projects involved major expansions of Islam’s two holiest sites, the Holy Mosque in Makkah and the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah, as well as airports and ports.
In the international arena, King Fahd worked actively to resolve regional and global crises. These crises included the Arab-Palestinian conflict, Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, the Lebanese civil war in addition to conflicts in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Somalia and Kashmir.
As Crown Prince in 1981, he proposed an eight-point plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict and give the Palestinians an independent state. The plan was considered one of the first attempts to find a just and lasting settlement that took into consideration the needs of both the Arabs and Israel. It was unanimously adopted by the Arab League at a summit in Fez, Morocco in 1982.
King Fahd also dedicated years of diplomacy to resolving the civil war in Lebanon. He hosted a meeting of Lebanese members of parliament in Taif, Saudi Arabia in 1989. The meeting resulted in a national reconciliation accord signed in Taif that ended the fighting and opened the way for reconstruction with help from Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries.
Perhaps the greatest international crisis of King Fahd’s rule occurred when Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990. The King played a key role in putting together the international coalition that drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait.
King Fahd was also concerned with humanitarian issues. Under his rule, Saudi Arabia provided emergency humanitarian assistance to numerous countries, including Somalia, Bosnia and Afghanistan, as well as countries suffering from natural disasters, such as earthquakes (Turkey in 1999, Iran in 2003) and the tsunami that struck Southeast Asia in December 2004.
King Abdullah (2005 - )                                                                 
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz acceded to the throne after the death of King Fahd on August 1, 2005.
King Abdullah was born in Riyadh in 1924, and received his early education at the royal court. Influenced by his father King Abdulaziz, he developed a profound respect for religion, history and Arab heritage. His years spent living in the desert with Bedouin tribes taught him their values of honor, simplicity, generosity and bravery, and instilled in him the desire to assist in the development of his people.
As Crown Prince, he traveled widely in the Kingdom and inaugurated a number of projects throughout the country. In 2005 he closely monitored the election process for the country’s municipal councils.
The Prince’s first official visit to the United States was in 1976 when he met with President Gerald Ford. Since then, he has made a number of visits to the United States, including his most recent on April 25, 2005 to President George W. Bush’s ranch in Crawford, Texas.
His international diplomacy reflects Saudi Arabia’s leadership role in defense of Arab and Islamic issues and for the achievement of world peace, stability and security. Peace in the Middle East and the plight of the Palestinians are of particular concern to King Abdullah. His proposal for a comprehensive Arab-Israeli peace, presented at the Beirut Arab Summit in 2002, has been adopted by the League of Arab States and is known as the Arab Peace Initiative.
King Abdullah has been unwavering in his condemnation of terrorism. At the International Counterterrorism Conference in Riyadh in February, 2005, he called for greater international cooperation to fight this global problem.
Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz
When he became King in August 2005, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah appointed his brother Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz as Crown Prince. Crown Prince Sultan is also Minister of Defense and Aviation, and the Kingdom’s Inspector-General.
Prince Sultan was born in Riyadh in 1928, and, like his brothers, received his early education in religion, modern culture and diplomacy at the royal court. After serving as Governor of Riyadh Province from 1947 to 1953, he became the Kingdom’s first Minister of Agriculture. In 1955, he became Minister of Communications, and contributed greatly to the development of the Kingdom’s road, rail and telecommunications networks. He has been Minister of Defense and Aviation since 1963.
Prince Sultan serves as chairman of a number of organizations, including the National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development (NCWCD), the Saudi Arabian Railways Organization (SRO), the Higher Council for Islamic Affairs, and the Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz Charity Foundation. He has made a number of official visits overseas, and led the Saudi delegation to the 40th, 50th and 60th sessions of the United Nations General Assembly in 1985, 1995 and 2005.
During official visits to the United States in October 1995, February 1997, and November 1999 Prince Sultan met with President Bill Clinton and a number of US officials.

Prince Naif Bin Abdul Aziz

 

Second Deputy Prime Minister and

Minister of Interior, Communicates

 

 

Prince Naif Bin Abdul Aziz, the Second Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, communicates his thanks to the Minister of Health, Dr. Abdullah Al Rabeeah and Ministry's staff where 21 hospitals won CBAHI Certificate after being subjected to 881 international health quality standards.

His highness wrote in his thanks letter: "we would like to deliver our thanks and recognition to your Excellence and all Ministry's staff for your high achievements and efforts in this significant area, asking Allah to bless you all"

Minister of Health, Dr. Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz Al Rabeeah, expressed his gratitude and thanks to his Highness, stressing on the received support from the Government and confirming on the Ministry dedication to exceed our leadership expectations and providing people's health needs.

His Excellence added that these hospitals were the first to win CBAHI certificates but won't be the only according to the Ministry's strategic plan, which will be implemented during the coming 5 years.

For the first time, Ministry of Health celebrates the granting of CBAHI certificate to 21 governmental hospitals such as King Fahd Specialist Hospital- Dammam and Al Babtain Medical Centre. As part of the Ministry's dedication to provide high quality of health services to all citizens and residents in the Kingdom, these Hospitals were subjected for more than 881 international standards included all provided health services.

The Ministry clarified that the preparation procedures for this evaluation lasted for more than a year which includes upgrading professional and administrative systems, patient safety procedures in all departments through 22 fields, which included a number of significant aspects in providing health services.

The Ministry added that the Minister of Health instructions, regarding health quality standards in hospitals are beening handled as a strategic plan for the Ministry, where health quality standards and patient's safety cannot be separated.

Therefore, health services quality and patient's safety are the main concern in most of countries. As a result, the Ministry of Health developed a strategic plan based on the Minister's guidance, Dr. Abdullah Al Rabeeah, where all hospitals must compliant to international health quality standards in order to enhance health services and reduce medical mistakes, since 60 hospitals will be evaluated next year.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pak-Saudi Arabia Bilateral Relations

Saudi Arabia is our strategic partner which is rooted in culture, shared values and common faith. Close geographical propinquity, historic trade ties, religious acquaintance and the economic support have created a strong ties based on trust and mutual respect between the two countries.

Recently, Prime Minister Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani visited to Saudi Arabia and met with the Custodian of two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz and discussed on variety of bilateral and regional issues. A broad consensus was reached on enhancing Pakistan-Saudi Arabia partnership based on comprehensive cooperation. Both sides expressed the wish to enhance mutually beneficial cooperation and work closely to safeguard the stability and peace in the region and Islamic world.


 

King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz reaffirmed that Pakistan was a key member of the Ummah and a close friend of the Kingdom. “Pakistan and Saudi Arabia are one country; they are more than friends and more than brothers.

In recent extensive diplomatic spells between the two countries, Saudi leadership reaffirmed its commitment towards Pakistan’s cause and assured that it will continue its cooperation and assistance to Pakistan in all the fields and even agreed to enhance bilateral trade. The government of Pakistan also sought Saudi Arabia support for early finalization of Pakistan-GCC Free Trade Agreement (FTA). Matters relating to foreign direct investment, finance, trade, defence and export of manpower from Pakistan were also thoroughly discussed. Over 1.5 million Pakistanis are working in Saudi Arabia and it was also agreed that Pakistan would send more trained manpower for the development of Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Saudi leadership agreed to provide financial support for the construction of Bhasha Diamir Dam and also assured to extend help for other energy projects.

President Asif Ali Zardari and King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia agreed to work with greater cooperation in the wake of major developments in the region. The two leaders held extensive discussions on bilateral ties, situation in the Middle East and South Asia and the fight against militancy. The issues related to Iran, Afghanistan, situation in Bahrain and its security implications for the region came under discussion during the meeting.

National political scientists, regional strategists and international security experts termed President Zardari’s visit as significant because it immediately follows his visits to Iran and Afghanistan. According to them it is all about the ‘end game’ in the Afghan war, the turmoil in Bahrain and worsening relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran and the President Zardari’s visit is being seen as an effort to evolve a joint strategy on these sensitive issues.

It seems that the recent regional geo-political and geo-strategic developments have played important role bringing both the countries closer than they were about a year ago. The government of Pakistan has been doing track-II diplomacy for the last few months to bring Saudi Arabia and Iran on board and achieve regional harmony and greater peace.

Diplomatic Relations

Saudi Arabia has been helping Pakistan in many fields since 1947. Saudi Arabia and Pakistan are leading members of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Saudi Arabia supported Pakistan on the issue of Kashmir and encouraged both the countries to start confidence building measures. It openly opposed partition of Pakistan and creation of Bangladesh. Both the countries were at same wave-length at the time of Afghan War and remained closed allies fighting against communism during 1980s. During the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War, Pakistan on request, sent troops to protect the Islamic holy sites in Saudi Arabia. Both the countries played important role in recognition of Taliban rule in Afghanistan. Pakistan offered its political, moral and diplomatic support on many regional Islamic and international issues.

Saudi Arabia came to our rescue even in May 1998 (nuclear test) and promised to supply 50,000 barrels per day of free oil to help Pakistan cope with likely economic sanctions in the aftermath.

Saudi Arabia extended its humanitarian assistance on many times of natural calamities in the country. Saudi Arabia donated SR245 billion between 1973 and 1993, which equals 5.5 percent of its average annual production during that period. In recent years, both countries have exchanged high-level delegations and developed plans to expand bilateral cooperation in trade, education, real estate, tourism, information technology, communications and agriculture.

Saudi Arabia has provided assistance in form of fuel donation, fuel credit. Both the countries strongly advocate dialogue among cultures, civilizations and faiths, so as to remove misperceptions among the followers of different faiths. Saudi Arabia has been among the first countries to acknowledge Pakistan as a newly developed country and extended a helping hand to strengthen its development drive.

Pak-Saudi Trade Volumes

Exports to Saudi Arabia Principal items Rice, ready made garments, cotton fabrics, synthetic fabrics, made up textiles, tents and canvas, fruits and vegetables, spices, towels, carpets and rugs, sports goods, fish and fish preparations, handicrafts, leather manufactures and printed matters Imports from Saudi Arabia Crude petroleum, polythene, plastic moulding powder, aluminum waste, urea, dates, copper wire and rods, ships and boats, ether and its derivatives, chemicals machines, paper waste, parts of aircraft and sulphur.

Saudi Arabia is among the 15 export partners of Pakistan with which bilateral trade volume has gone above US$ 4 billion per annum and it would be further increased in future.

Recommendations

It is strongly recommended that cargo flights between both of the countries should be increased to save extra tax expenditure as well as quality of a product. There should be close coordination and information sharing between the local business community and the Saudi business men to further boost trade in the fields of surgical instruments, furniture, leather goods, fruit and vegetable. Simplification of the visa process would further facilitate the business community in the country. Moreover, there were 350 Pakistani investors in the Saudi Arabia have already obtained licenses from Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority and have established companies in various fields.

Main Contribution

Pakistan has very close and longstanding relationship with Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia has already invested substantially in some Pakistani key sectors of the economy and basic industries which are given below as: Saudi Arabia is interested in investing in Pakistan’s energy and agriculture sectors.

Key sectors/fields
infrastructure, key production industries, banking, irrigation, energy, fertilizer and port development like Mirpur Mathelo Fertilizer Plant, Pipri Thermal Power Project, Tarbela Dam repairs, Port Qasim etc

Military Cooperation

Since form the beginning, both the countries maintain close military ties by providing extensive support, arms and training for the military of Saudi Arabia. Pilots of the Pakistan Air Force flew aircraft of the Royal Saudi Air Force to deter an raid from South Yemen in 1969. In the 1970s and 1980s, approximately 15,000 Pakistani soldiers were stood tall in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia showed great interests to purchase of Pakistani ballistic missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads. Pakistan and Saudi Arabia have information mechanism on different subject.

Pakistan-Saudi Arabia alliance would guarantee larger regional conciliation and stronger ties of survival, production and socio-economic prosperity. Generosity of Saudi Arabia, mediation of Pakistan hold the key of success.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

 

‘The brotherly ties between Pakistan and Saudi Arabia based on bedrock of Islamic solidarity provide a model for other nations to emulate’. Since independence of Pakistan, Saudi Arabia has remained a faithful friend that has cooperated in various fields and never left Pakistan alone in ups and downs. The Saudi Arabs generous assistance of $573 million during 2005 earthquake, $100
million for the rehabilitation of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Swat-Malakand in September 2009 and $300 million for the flood victims are the empirical evidences that determine the sincerity of one of the faithful friend. Saudi is also a member of the Friends of Democratic Pakistan’ group. Similarly, Pakistan values and respects this cordial and trusted relation. Although, two countries do not share any geographical boundary with each other, despite that the socio-cultural, religious particularly spiritual knots are working as a deep binding force between two countries. Some diabolical forces wanted to create a gap between the friendship of two countries through the assassination of Mr. Hassan Al Qahtani in Karachi, but the strong relation, made them unsuccessful in their heinous strategy. The leaders of two countries clearly showed their unity and gave a message of friendship. This trust has set an example of others.

It is hoped that two countries will show their full cooperation and coordination and take every possible step to defeat the diabolical forces. They will also cooperate in social, economic, political development. Their cooperation will further strengthen the bilateral relations of two countries and set an example of other countries to follow.

.......................................................................................................................

 

 

Pak Saudi Friendship

 

Saudi is a non-aligned state whose foreign policy objectives are to maintain its security and its paramount position on the Arabian Peninsula, defend general Arab and Islamic interests, promote solidarity among Islamic governments, and maintain cooperative relations with other oil-producing and major oil-consuming countries. Although accused of being tolerant to extremism, the foreign policy is generally pacific and does not advocate belligerence, violent reform or revolution.
Saudi Arabia is a founding member of the United Nations, having signed the United Nations Charter in 1945. The country plays a prominent role in the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and Arab and Islamic financial and development assistance institutions. One of the largest aid donors in the world, it still gives some aid to a number of Arab, African, and Asian countries.
Jeddah is the headquarters of the Secretariat of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and its subsidiary organization, the Islamic Development Bank, founded in 1969.

 

 

Contents
1 Emergence of role in modern diplomacy
2 Membership in OPEC
3 First Persian Gulf War
4 International disputes
5 Human rights


Emergence of role in modern diplomacy
The first country to establish full diplomatic relations with Hijaz (the name of the Saudi state until 1932) was the Soviet Union.
Membership in OPEC
Membership in the 11-member OPEC and in the technically and economically oriented Arab producer group—the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries--facilitates coordination of Saudi oil policies with other oil-exporting governments. As the world's leading exporter of petroleum, Saudi Arabia has a special interest in preserving a stable and long-term market for its vast oil resources by allying itself with healthy Western economies which can protect the value of Saudi financial assets. It generally has acted to stabilize the world oil market and tried to moderate sharp price movements.
First Persian Gulf War
In 1990-91, Saudi Arabia played an important role in the Persian Gulf War, developing new allies and improving existing relationships with some other countries. However, there also were diplomatic and financial costs. Relations between Saudi Arabia and Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya deteriorated. Each country had remained silent following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait but called for an
end to violence once the deployment of coalition troops began. Relations between these countries and Saudi Arabia have returned to their pre-war status. Saudi Arabia's relations with those countries which expressed support for Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait--Yemen, Jordan, and Sudan--were severely strained during and immediately after the war. The Palestine Liberation
Organization's support for Iraq cost it financial aid as well as good relations with Saudi Arabia and other Persian Gulf states. Recently, though, Saudi Arabia's relations with Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have improved, with the Saudi Government providing assistance for Palestinian Authority.
During and after the Persian Gulf War, the Government of Saudi Arabia provided water, food, shelter, and fuel for coalition forces in the region. There also were monetary payments to some coalition partners. Saudi Arabia's combined costs in payments, foregone revenues, and donated supplies worth $55 billion. More than $15 billion went toward reimbursing the United States alone.
Saudi Arabia became one of three countries to offer the Taliban diplomatic recognition in 1997. An estimated $2 million came each year from Saudi Arabia's major charity, funding two universities and six health clinics and supporting 4,000 orphans; King Fahd sent an annual shipment of dates as a gift.

International disputes
See also: Territorial disputes in the Persian Gulf  Large sections of the boundary with Yemen are not defined; the location and status of the boundary with the United Arab Emirates is not final, with the de facto boundary reflecting the 1974 agreement; Kuwaiti ownership of the islands of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim is disputed by Saudi Arabia; but the June 1999 agreement has furthered the goal of definitively establishing the border with Qatar.
Human rights
Main article: Human rights in Saudi Arabia Some nations have expressed concern about human rights in the country, including prisoners and incommunicado detention; prohibitions or severe restrictions on the freedoms of speech, press, peaceful assembly and association, and religion; the right of citizens to change their government; systematic discrimination against women and ethnic and religious minorities; and suppression of civil rights. Foreigners can be imprisoned without trial for forcing others to their religion in public or private.
Relation between Pakistan
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has helped Pakistan in many fields since Pakistan gained independence in 1947. Since the inception of Pakistan, Saudi Arabia has provided Pakistan with assistance in the form of fuel credit, fuel donation, loans, aid, donations, and gifts. Most famous example of Saudi Arabia's relationship with Pakistan is the Faisal Mosque, the National Mosque of the country in Islamabad, Pakistan. More recently, Saudi Arabia has given Pakistan hundreds of millions of dollars as a donation for the 2005 Earthquake in Pakistan. In fact, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was the number 1 donor, having contributed $600 million.
Other forms of assistance given by Saudi Arabia include providing employment to millions of Pakistanis over the past 60 years, this is in turn reciprocated by the extensive flight of skilled and unskilled workers to Saudi Arabia from Pakistan, Pakistani's have been an integrative component of Saudi Arabia's modernization since their arrival in the 1960s and 1970s. This has been a blessing for Pakistan as well as the workers who worked in Saudi Arabia not only accumulated wealth, when they came back to Pakistan, they led Pakistan's construction boom and introduction of modern goods and items. Saudi Arabia has also actively promoted Pakistan's social life by funding many social projects like building of Islamic community centres, relief foundations, and mosques throughout Pakistan.
Faisal Mosque, Islamabad, Pakistan.Due to the Kingdom's continuing generosity, many places in Pakistan are named after Saudi Kings and Saudi Arabia in general. For example, the city previously named Lyallpur was renamed Faisalabad in honor of the late Faisal of Saudi Arabia. Also, in Karachi, Pakistan, there are neighbourhoods named Saud Colony, Saudabad, Faisal Colony. Also in Karachi, there is an airforce base name Faisal Airbase named after King Faisal and also, in the honor of King Faisal, the main business street of Pakistan is called Sharah-e-Faisal in Karachi.
In 2005, due to passing of King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Pakistan declared a three-day mourning period.
In March 2008, Saudi Arabia donated Pakistan $300 million to help with the economic problems there.

 

 

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